Voynich plant 5r

Can you help us to identify this plant and also decode the name?

ImageText
Click here to see the original page.Click here to see the original page.

Possible name (first word): K X A T N

Step 1: Look at the Voynich plant picture above. Look also at the possible name of that plant from the same page.

Step 2:  Look at some other expert suggestions, below, for what this plant might be. Some are borrowed from here.

E VoynichPetersonSherwoodVelinskaBiologist - Finland
Paris?Paris, Indian cucumber?Wolf’s bane (Arnica montana)Herb Paris - id by Ethel VoynichParis quadrifolia

Step 3: If you have any good suggestions for the plant, please post a comment below. Give the Latin genus and species name if you can.

Step 4: Can you suggest a name in any language which might resemble the Voynich word? If so, post a comment below.

In particular can you suggest a name from any language which might fit the Voynich text?

Thanks

11 Comments

  1. Scholler Jean-Marie

    I confirm the name of the plant which
    is Paris Quadrifolia latin
    This plant is a famous one the people have had great respect of this medical plant. At the 15th century this plant was used for black death or to protect against the devil.
    So the old German name is “duewelauge or duewelbeere” which means devil eye or devil berry. The new German name is “Einbeere” an other very old name is “amperchrawt”

    kshody fchoy: duewel beere or duewel auge

    best regards
    JM SCHOLLER

  2. Paul Hicks

    The last letter is clearer on f37v and is Y rather than N giving some variation like Kochaty, Kashaty and the nearest I can get is Kekatiya which is the water chestnut in Sri Lanka. This does not fit the drawing for 5r but is not bad for f37v?

  3. Johannes Klein

    Just one comment:
    If the plant depicted is a Paris (to which I agree). I want to point out that the genus has ca. 20 species and Paris quadrifolia as has been discussed by the Finish has most often four leaves at a given whorl (seldom five). Paris incompleta from the Caucasus and adjacent regions in Turkey is the second species found in Europe (in a broad sense) which has 7-9 leaves at a given whorl. All other species are at present restricted to E Asia.
    This map shows the distribution area of the species (not up to date on species no.):
    http://www2.biologie.uni-halle.de/bot/ag_chorologie/choro/img/maps/I/Choro100b.jpg

  4. Marnix Hoekstra

    The first word is the same as on f37v, so the name probably includes the second word.

    • Marco

      I find the idea of considering the second word interesting. Also in the Herbal linked by Stephen, the text begins with “ERBA Paris”.

      I attempt a transcription and translation of that page of the Italian herbal:

      “Erba Paris a sanar uno osso franto e roso fora[?] per /
      febre o per altra malatia torai il sugo de dita erba /
      con olio dolce esedata[?] et onzi losso franto per 5 /
      fiate, etiam manzando se uno fuset mato /
      per alcuna infirmiza manza de la dita erba /
      in menestra ou a beve per spazio de di 25 sara /
      libero et ritornera in suo stato: la nasce in mezzi[?] /
      fredi et lochi oscuri[?]”

      Herb Paris to heal a bone broken or worn[?] out for /
      a fever or any other illness. You will take the juice of the said herb /
      with sweet oil and ??? and grease the broken bone for 5 /
      times. It can also be eaten if one is crazy /
      for any illness: [one should] eat the said herb /
      as a soup or drink [its juice] for 25 days; he /
      will be freed and will go back to his [normal] state. It grows in half[?] /
      cold and dark[?] places.

      http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs/PageLevel/index.cfm?ManID=ljs419&Page=53

      • Marnix Hoekstra

        Thank you Marco.
        Could ‘e sedata’ mean oil that has settled? (from Latin: sedare – sedari)
        In the Greek manuscript the first word is often ‘plant’ or ‘herb’ as well.
        My idea about the Voynich plant names is this: if the name starts with a gallows character then it is the first word. If the name starts with a different character then:
        1) either it has a gallows character as a prefix (POROR: f15v & f16r third paragraph),
        2) or another word with a gallows character is placed in front, probably a general word for a category of plants (f5r, f15r, f37v, f53v). In that case we have to focus on the second or third word.

        • Marco

          Hello Marnix,
          I found another XV Century Herbal which gives (almost exactly) the same text in Latin.
          http://www.pinterest.com/pin/518265869591685277/

          Thanks to the Trent Latin herbal, I was able to correct a few errors in my previous transcription from the Veneto Italian herbal linked by Stephen (“esedata” actually was “mescolato”, “mistum” [sic] in the Trent herbal, i.e. “mixed”):

          “Erba Paris a sanar uno osso franto e roso ou per /
          febre o per altra malatia torai il sugo de dita erba /
          con olio dolce mescolato et onzi losso franto per 5 /
          fiate, etiam manzando se uno fuset mato /
          per alcuna infirmiza manza de la dita erba /
          in menestra ou a beve per spazio de di 25 sara /
          libero et ritornera in suo stato: la nasce in monti /
          fredi et lochi oscuri”

          Herb Paris to heal a bone broken or worn out for /
          a fever or any other illness. You will take the juice of the said herb /
          mixed with sweet oil and grease the broken bone for 5 /
          times. It can also be eaten if one is crazy /
          for any illness: [one should] eat the said herb /
          as a soup or drink [its juice] for 25 days; he /
          will be feed and will go back to his [normal] state. It grows on /
          cold mountains and dark places.

          About the name of the plant being made up of two words, I found a number of names for herb Paris in different Italian dialects here:
          http://dryades.units.it/ampezzosauris/?procedure=taxon_page&id=6960&num=2119

          Nome italiano: Erba Paris [herb Paris] (Toscana), Erba crociola [herb of the small cross] (Italia), Erba crociona [herb of the big cross] (Toscana), Fuga di d’ moni [demon’s bane] (Piemonte), Jerbe dei mats [herb of the fools] (Friuli), Paris (Italia), Quaterfoij [four-leaved] (Emilia-Romagna, Bologna), Sciù du diau [devil’s bane?] (Liguria, Ponti di Nava), Tosi (Piemonte, Val S. Martino), Uga d’u diau [devil’s grape] (Liguria, Porto Maurizio), Uva di volpe [fox’s grape] (Toscana), Uva spina [thorny grape] (antichi), Uva versa [turned? grape] (antichi)

          [note that the North-Eastern name from Friuli (“Jerbe dei mats” [herb of the fools]) seems to echo the second recipe in the Veneto and Trent herbals, in which the herb is said to cure madness]

          In the list above, there are two proper names (“Paris” and “Tosi”) and a number of composed names, usually made up of a generic noun (“herb”, “bane”, “grape”) and a qualifier. If we could identify plant f37v, maybe we could also think of what the common initial word for the two plants (“kshody”) could mean. Could it be a prefixed occurrence of “shody”, which appears in something like the 20% of the herbal pages? If so, I guess it could mean something slightly more specific than “herb” (like “grape”, “berry”, “leaf” or “root”).

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            Interesting, so many different Italian names, no doubt with different stories attached to them.
            I agree that ‘kshody’ and ‘shody’ and maybe ‘ckhody’ are the same. The word also appears three times on the first folio, which most likely announces what the whole codex is about.

  5. Stephen Bax

    I just found this nice image of ‘Paris quadrifolia’ in an Italian 15th c manuscript – what do you think?

    http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs/PageLevel/index.cfm?ManID=ljs419&Page=53

    • Neticis

      Looks similar, but it has two fruits, though.

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