Voynich plant 6r

Can you help us to identify this plant and also decode the name?

ImageText
Click here to see the original page.Click here to see the original page.

Possible name (first word): ? A U R

Step 1: Look at the Voynich plant picture above. Look also at the possible name of that plant from the same page.

Step 2:  Look at some other expert suggestions, below, for what this plant might be. Some are borrowed from here.

E VoynichPetersonSherwoodVelinskaBiologist - Finland
Aristolochia?AsclepiadesBear Breeches (Acanthus mollis)Philodendron - id by Dana ScottDrosera sp.

Step 3: If you have any good suggestions for the plant, please post a comment below. Give the Latin genus and species name if you can.

Step 4: Can you suggest a name in any language which might resemble the Voynich word? If so, post a comment below.

In particular can you suggest a name from any language which might fit the Voynich text?

Thanks

19 Comments

  1. MarcoP

    See also the illustrations of wild and domestic Poppy in the Vienna Discorides (6th Century). The leaves, fruits and roots are certainly comparable.

    http://uses.plantnet-project.org/fr/Fichier:M%C3%AAk%C3%B4n_agrios_222r_Dioscoride_Vienne.png

    http://uses.plantnet-project.org/fr/Fichier:M%C3%AAk%C3%B4n_h%C3%AAmeros_k%C3%AApaios_221v_Dioscoride_Vienne.png

  2. Stephen Bax

    I’ve come across the word BARAVRIS in a 15th century Armenian source, glossed by the editor as meaning the Poppy (papaver somniferum).

    Can anyone recognise this word or where it might come from? It seems to resemble ‘papaver’ somewhat.

  3. Jan M

    It could be papaver. The first word (EVA: poar) might be PAUR (close to -paver part of the name). And it may be a mere coincidence, but the third word of the text (EVA: shol) sounds like XA[sh], which is similar to armenian for papaver (Խաշխաշ, xashxash). I know it’s against your methodology to try to find suitable words throughout the text and guess, so it’s just a try. The beginning of this folio might be something like “PAUR N (= or, I assume from the context) XA[sh] …”. Yes, I am proposing two new glyph mappings, P (EVA: p) and Š/[sh] (EVA: l, already encountered in coriander), which might be too premature.

    • Stephen Bax

      Thanks – I hadn’t thought of any of that. (I’ve corrected a slip I made in the possible name under the picture, from KAUR to ?AUR).

      I’ve been leaning towards reading the ‘a’ sign (the third sign in the first word) as a /w/ semi-vowel sound, which would give ‘P A W A R’, supporting your analysis even more strongly.

      In fact ‘xashxash’ is also Arabic and Persian, so it is certainly intriguing that the ‘xash’ element might be found in the third (and a variant in the fourth?) words. Mediaeval herbal pages frequently offered one name followed by alternative names for the plant in the picture, so your suggestion is certainly worth considering, in my opinion.

      • Jan M

        I am glad I helped 🙂

        Well, I understood from your paper that “U” (EVA: a) is some sort of schwa sound. Maybe just denoting it with a proper symbol for schwa Ə or writing W would be okay until more will be known. Designing a proper/perfect transcription for yet unknown language is currently far-fetched. Yes, I know that in this case it wouldn’t be the first time – it was done at least one time before and the reason why writer hadn’t chosen some known contemporary script (preferably arabic or hebrew because the language seems to be written in abjad) is a mystery. But a nice mystery. Some day I will try to look at another plants, but nothing guaranteed. 🙂

        Best regards and good luck,
        Jan.

      • Jan M

        And just to comment the fourth word. It is ?AŠAR, if we accept the third glyph to mean Š/sh. The first glyph is similar to X, but it is lacking diaresis/interpunction/whatever above it, so it might be (but it is very speculative proposal) some similar sound. H, maybe? (As in help, heavy, have, or in German language.) But if the X is supposed to be that “harsh” sound Arabic has, it might be anything… from cleaner form of X to G. Or the other way around. I am not a phonology expert and I have no support for this case, it should be better to test it on another plant 🙂

      • Derek Vogt

        A bit of a wrench in the works for the idea of “xash” as an alternate name for 6r… the same word also shows up as the second word on 56v, the third on 8v and 13r and 22r, the fourth on 47r, and the end of the first on 28v and fifth on 13r.

        Also, it’s part of a strangely repetitive cluster in several cases. Just sticking with calling the final character “sh” anyway for simplicity and obscuring all other letters:

        6r: ____ _ xash *ash** *ash
        8v: _______ *ash xash **ash *ash
        13r: ______ ____ xash __ ******xash
        22r: *ashash** **ash* xash
        47r: ____ ash* _____ xash
        56v: _____ xash

        Some of those remind me of Old English poetry using alliteration instead of rhymes. Just imagine the trouble that’s still ahead if the Voynich manuscript used kennigns! 😮

        • Marnix Hoekstra

          According to the book on Arabic botany, “Khashī, or hashī, is plant material that has dried.”
          This might be linked to EVA-CHOL and EVA-SHOL, IF we are reading it right.

    • Derek Vogt

      The letter you’re saying seems to represent “sh” is one of two letters that I thought would represent “sh” based on their resemblance to the letter “Shin” in an alphabet that I think is related to Voynich’s: the Syriac alphabet. I didn’t know of any words to put that letter in or what they meant or what modern languages have similar words. I just saw that the Voynich letters that we now have sound values for looked related to Syriac letters and then matched up some other Voynich & Syriac letters with each other visually. So we arrived at the same conclusion on this letter by different routes.

  4. gretchen

    Its a Reseda.

    • Neticis

      la: Reseda, ru: Резеда, hy: հափրուկ [hap#r’uk]

  5. The strange thing about this plant is the small roots. Usually, the dried root which is used for medicine. Something else strange is the white on the side of the green capsules.

    Guess: The white on the capsules is raw opium. Therefore: Papaver somniferum

  6. labyrinth

    I looks a bit like a poppy plant, papaver somniferum, in the stadium where it has its seed pods. But since the poppy is so common, it would have probably been identified by the botanists already.

    • labyrinth

      Let me correct myself; I didn’t click on the image to make it larger, so if it is a poppy, the pods aren’t seed pods, but rather flower buds, because you can see the buds opening up on the sides as if flowers are about to bloom.

  7. Taraxacum officinale? (common dandelion)

    Reminds me a little of a dandelion when it’s ready to open up and expose the seeds.

    http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/d/dandel08-l.jpg

    • Neticis

      Probably. la: Taraxacum officinale, ru: Одуванчик, hy: խտուտիկ [Xtut’ik]

    • Hans Adler

      Somehow that’s what I thought, too, when I saw this illustration. Though it’s much more likely to be a related species such as something in the genus hieracium. Dandelion has only one flower per stalk and has a tap root. Many species that otherwise look very similar to dandelion have several flowers per stalk, and apparently a few have no tap root. Also, there are medicinal uses for hieracium.

      I find the identification as papaver soniferum more convincing, though. I can’ t think of a reason why some pseudo-dandelion should be drawn with just the green buds rather than with the yellow flowers and/or the blowballs. The leaves look silly, but I suspect that these illustration are to a large extent relying on the descriptions in the text and on earlier illustrations, rather than on actual plants.

  8. Neticis

    la: Drósera ru: Росянка hy: ցողաբույս [ts#,or”ab’uhs]
    la :Acanthus ru: Ака́нт, ka: აკანთო [‘akant#o] hy: Ականթ [ak’ant#]

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