My 2012 Voynich paper

Here below is a link to my 2012 paper. Please note that I now see several things wrong with that paper, so it is posted here for historical interest only 4k 60fps 샘플.

You can see some updates on my thinking in my Feb 2014 paper, and also in other postings such as this one, which repeats part of the 2012 paper but updates and corrects some of the ideas 나혼자만 레벨업 텍스트 다운로드.

But in any case, here is the 2012 paper in case you are interested, mistakes and all:

Download (PDF, 862KB)


Or click here vuejs 파일 다운로드.


  1. I’ve read on Ellie Velinska’s blog that some un-named expert at the Folger library says the work is Greek. They describe it as a dispensatory (the Greek term for the genre is used: iatrosophia). Have you seen anything in the text to suggest that it’s just badly written Greek?

    • Marnix Hoekstra

      Do you happen to have a sample of this expert’s Greek transcription?

  2. Marnix Hoekstra

    You’re welcome. I browsed through the manuscript but haven’t found those plants yet. It is indeed very hard to read.
    I’ve taken a look at Dioscorides. He mentions an alternative name for the crocus: kastor. ‘Kastor’ means ‘beaver’. It also refers to a mythological figure and a star. To my knowledge it is not used anywhere for ‘crocus’ so he is referring to a foreign word. Maybe he misheard ‘kesar’, or the Voynichese word.
    Dioscorides also discusses the Castor oil plant, but the phrase ‘castor oil’ is a recent coinage so that does not concern us here.

  3. Marnix Hoekstra

    I’m not sure if I should post this here or on the stars page. Anyway, the Greek word κενταύριον (the plant) is a diminutive of κενταύρος. Likewise the diminutive of ταύρος is ταύριον. This matches your reading of EVA ‘doary’ as TAURN. Admittedly, I can’t find any instances of ταύριον in an astronomical context. But the 12 constellations are called
    ζῴδια which is also diminutive.
    We could also read ταυρών or ταυρεών, the month on Taurus. But then we have to explain away a long vowel.
    (I’m doing research on Greek manuscripts, hence my interest.)

    • Stephen Bax

      Fascinating, thanks! Someone has sent me a theory suggesting that the whole manuscript is in a disguised form of Greek, but I haven’t had time to look through it fully.

      Have you seen the interesting Greek manuscript listed on this page:

      It is written in a tough script, hard even for Greek speakers I’m told. I am especially interested in this page, and what the plant name might be:

      Also the plant in the top left of this page:​

      • Marnix Hoekstra

        The name of the first plant looks like μανδραγοῦρας, an unusual variant of μανδραγόρας. I’m not sure about the next word and can’t make anything of the other plant.
        I’m not an expert in handwriting though.

      • Marnix Hoekstra

        Maybe it’s just my imagination but if you turn the first picture upside down there appears to be a face on the root.

        • Stephen Bax

          Ah yes, thanks – that is ‘mandrake’ I suppose. Yes, the face is clear I think. It must refer to the idea of the mandrake’s root as being a human figure.

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            Yes, it must be mandrake. The second word is not clear but it has the root θῆλυς (feminine) in it.

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            I have taken another look at the second plant. The only word I can identify is ‘masculine’. My best guess is silphion, but the barely legible text does not support it.

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            What plant did you have in mind?

          • Stephen Bax

            For the first page, p13, Mandrake, I am curious about the second word, written in black ink, as the first character looks very much like the EVA ‘Y’ character, resembling 9.

            Also, the O sign has a semi-circle above it which looks very much like the Voynich mark over the EVA ‘sh’ symbol.

            For the second plant, page 17, top left, what do you think the first and third letters are? The rest of the name looks like _ O _ ANIS

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            On page 13 (f7r of the Greek manuscript), the character that resembles a 9 is a theta. The word after mandrake starts with θηλυ-. It is probably θηλυκία (thelykia), although one would expect a masculine adjective next to a masculine noun. In any case, it means ‘female mandrake’.
            The O sign is an OU-ligature with an accent on it.

            On a general note, I don’t think the Voynich-script is directly related to the Greek alphabet.

            As for the plant on page 17 (f1r of the Greek manuscript): The word on the left side of the plant looks like ‘hathmo’ which makes no sense to me. ‘Hathmo’ (or whatever it is) is the whole name because the first character on the right side indicates a disjunction. The second name is even harder to decipher. The last word means ‘masculine’.

            • Stephen Bax

              Thank you for your careful replies, especially about the 9 = theta, and the other help with the mandrake and the accent.

              My other question in fact related to page 9r of the Greek manuscript, the plant in the top left, which I thought looked like _ O _ ANIS.

              I’m sorry I confused you – the hyperlink wrongly takes you to page f1r of the manuscript, not to f9r as it should!

              As for the Greek aspect – there is a whole book available, by Maurice and Anita Israel, which claims the whole script is a version of Greek. They kindly sent it to me, but I must say that I can’t see how their translation works exactly, I’m sorry to say.

          • Marnix Hoekstra

            Well, the confusion led me to silphion, which has an interesting history of its own.
            F9r is more legible. The word is ‘botanis’, meaning ‘herb’.
            ‘Pitarigos’, on the right, is not in my dictionaries; it may be a local name.
            About the book:
            I don’t believe the VM is Greek, but I keep an open mind and would like to see a sample of their transcription.

            • Stephen Bax

              Thanks. I find it hard to recognise even the letters, so thanks for the interpretations. If you happen to see coriander, centaury, viola, water lily, malva, ricinis communis, or flax, I’d be interested!

  4. Marnix Hoekstra

    Folio 15v, second line: This could be ar’ara, the Hebrew word for Juniper.

    • Stephen Bax

      Sorry, is that in the Voynich manuscript? Or the Greek one?

      • Marnix Hoekstra

        That was in the VM.

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